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The people lived in villages, towns and cities during the Sangam-period. The ancient Tamil style of living yielded to change. People who had lived a life attuned to nature dwelling in small tenements under clan chiefs had become the denizens of the land under the rule of emperors. Mannan and Ventan, the crowned kings quelled the chieftains of tribes and clan-chiefs and had their dominions established as empires. As the leader of these dominions, the king or the emperor remained in power. The king was venerated like a god. The army and power were in the hands of the kings.

The Sangam people called the country 'Mandalam'. Mandalas were divided into states. States were subdivided into 'Kottams' or cultivated districts. Such Kottams were further partitioned into Kootrams or portions. To such Kootrams belonged its inner segments of big and small towns. Small towns adjoining the coastal area were called 'Pattinams'. The city usually was the capital and the abode of the king.

Life during the Sangam age was land/soil bound. Industry and means of livelihood conformed to their habitat.





The Pallava period is comprehended as of three parts. The early Pallava times between 4th century AD to 6th century AD when small domains were ruled by Pallavas(1), The age between the 6th and 7th century AD(2),The later age (3).

During the Pallava reign many changes occurred in Tamil history. Many changes were affected in the social life and faith of Tamils. Among the early Pallavas, the most noteworthy is Sivaskandavarman. His region extended from River Krishna in the north to River Porunai in the south. Amaravati city was a Buddhist centre.

MahabalipuramThe early Pallavas include Kumaravishnu, Kandavarma, Veeravarma, Kandavarma II, andSimhavarma. During the rule of Simhavarma, the Pallava empire expanded. His son Simhavishnu defeated the Kalappirars and extended his power down south in Thondai-Mandala too. His power extended to regions of Malayaman Nadu, Chera, Chola, and Sinhala lands too. During his reign Kanchi was the capital city.


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Among the later Cholas, Rajarajan and Rajendra were the two who went on several
campaigns. Conquering the Cheras, western Chalukyas, and Pandyas, they established a vast Chola rule. They were in force even in Eelam. Vanquishing the Gangars in the Mysore region and Chalukyas in Tunga Bhadra riverine area, Rajarajan expanded the Chola empire.

During the reign of the Cholas , many great temples were built. New methods of administration were devised. Music and dance and such finer arts flourised. Saivite faith was fostered . Vedics enjoyed preferential treatment. Literature flourished & many new works were brought out .

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